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Abbreviations & Titles for Journals


AMNH-AP     American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers

BEFEO           Bulletin de l'Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient (Hanoi,Paris)

BMFEA          Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities (Stockholm)

FEO                Far Eastern Quarterly (New York)
                       Note: pre-1956=The Journal of Asian Studies

FMNH-AS      Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series

IAE                 International Archive fur Ethnologie

JBRS               Journal of the Burma Research Society (Rangoon)

JGIS                Journal of the Greater India Society (Calcutta)

JISOA             Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art (Calcutta)

JMBRAS        Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore)

JRAI               Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland

JRAS              Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (London)

JSS                  Journal of the Siam Society (Bangkok)

JSSS                Journal of the South Seas Society (Singapore)

JTRS               Journal of the Thailand Research Society (Bangkok)

PJS                  Philippine Journal of Science

PMAAE          Peabody Museum Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology

VKA               Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, Afdeeling Letterkunde,Nieuwe Reeks (Amsterdam)

ZFE                 Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie




Aalderink, B.V., Ceramic Wares of Siam, Amsterdam, Aalderink, B.V., 1978.

Abang Yusuf bin Abang Puteh, Some aspects of the marriage customs among the Sarawak Malays, Kuala Lumpur, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1966.

Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, The Story of the Voyage, Singapore, 1949.

Abraham, T.M., Handicrafts of India, New Delhi, 1964.

Adams, B.S., Traditional Bhutan Textiles, Bangkok, 1984.

Adhyatman, S., Antique Ceramics Found in Indonesia, Various Uses and Origins, Jakarta, Ceramic Society of Indonesia, 1981.

Allan, J.W., Treatise of Abd'l Quasim of Kashan.

Angsanakul, Pornroy, '70 years of haircutting experience', The Nation,  Bangkok, Aug. 10 1988.

 Anthropological Index, Royal Anthropological Institute.

Anthropological Literature, Harvard University.

Archer, M., Visions of India, The Sketchbooks of William Simpson 1859-62, Oxford, 1986.

Archer, M. & R., Lightbrown, India Observed, Indian as Viewed by British Artists 1760-1860, London, 1982.

Archer, W.G., Bazaar Paintings of Calcutta, The Stvle of Kaliqhat, London, 1953.

Aris, M., Bhutan, The Early History of A Himalayan Kingdom, 1980.

Arjungi, K.N., 'Areca Nut: A Review', Arzneim.-Forsch, 26, 5, 1976, pp. 951-956.

The Art of Mother of Pearl Inlay, (Thai & English), Bangkok, Department of Fine Arts, 1981.

Arveiller, R., Contribution a 1'etude des termes de voyage en francaise (1505-1722), Paris, d'Astrey, 1963.

Ashabranner, B. & M., 'Brass Boxes of the Southern Philippines', Arts of Asia, May-June 1982, pp. 129-135.

Atkinson, L., F.G. Smyth, & R.E.J. ten Seldam, 'Oral Cancer in New Guinea, Cancer, 17, 1964.

Attagara, K., The Folk Religion of Ban Nai: A Hamlet in Central Thailand, Indiana University, Institute of Folklore, 1967.

Auboya, J., (S.M. Taylor, Trans), Daily Life in Ancient India, London, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1965.

Ayer, M., Made in Thailand, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1964.


Bachand, R.G., 'Betel-chewing: Some Observations of the Habit Among the Vietnamese', Dental Student's Magazine, April 1967.

Baens, L., 'Tannin from Kernals of Green Betel Nuts', Philippine Journal of Science, 75, 4, 1941, pp. 363-369.

Bajracharya (Purna Harsha), 'Newar Marriage Customs and Festivals', Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 15, 1959, pp. 418-428.

Baker, S.W., Eight Years' Wanderings in Ceylon, London, 1855.

Barbosa, D., The Book of Duarte Barbosa, An Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants A.D. 1518, (M.S. Davies trans), London, Hakylut Society, XLIV, XLIX, 2 pts, 2nd ed, 1918, 1921.

Barbosa, Duarte, A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar in the beginning of the 16th century, trans. C. Ny Ho & H.E.J. Stanley, London: Hakluyt Society, 1866.

Barnoun, V., An Introduction to Anthropology, Ethnology, vol 2, 3rd ed, Honkewood, Illinois, The Dorsey Press, 1978.

Barnouw, V., 'Eastern Nepalese Marriage Customs and Kinship Organization', Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 11, 1955, pp. 257-271.

Barua, B.K., A Cultural History of Assam Early Period, Nowgong, 1951.

Basham, A.L., The Wonder That was India, London, 1969.

Beccari, O., 'Palms of the Philippine Islands', Philippine Journal Science, 14, 1919, p. 303.

Beccari, O., Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo, Singapore, Oxford University Press, 1986 (Archibald Constable & Co, London, 1904).

Beighton, J.T., Betel Nut Island, 1888.

Bell, H.C.P., The Maldive Islands, Colombo, 1940.

Bellwood, P. Man's Conquest of the Pacific. Auckland, Collins, 1978.

Benedict, R., Patterns of Culture. An Anthropologist at Work, Boston, Houghton Miffin Co., 1934.

'Betel Chewers of the East', Saturday Magazine, 19, c. 1841, p. 77.

Beyer, H.O., 'Outline Review of Philippine Archaeology by Islands and Provinces', Philippine Journal of Science, 77, 3-4 (1947), pp. 205-390.

Bickmore, Albert S., Travels in the East Indian Archipelago, New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1869.

Bird, Isabella L., The Golden Chersonese, and the way thither, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Oxford University Press, rep. 1967.

Blackford, P., 'Betel Nut lore', The Nation Review, 7 April 1985, p. 19.

Blair, E.H. and Robertson, J.A., The Philippine Islands: 1543-1898, Cleveland, Clark & Co., 1904-1909.

Blatter, E., The Palms of British India and Ceylon, London, 1926.

Bock, C., Temples and Elephants, London, 1884.

Boisselier, J., Ceylon: Sri Lanka, trans, by James Hogarth, Geneva, Paris, Munich, Nagel, 1979.

Boisselier, J., Le Cambodge, Asie Du Sud-Est, Paris, A. & J. Picard, 1966.

Bowring, Sir J., A Visit to the Philippine Islands, London, 1859.

Boxer, C.R., Fidalgos in the Far East (1550-1770), Hong Kong, 1968.

Brace, C.L., 'Tooth Reduction in the Orient', Asian Perspectives, 19, 1976, pp 203-219.

Bradley, J., A Narrative of Travel and Sport in Burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula, London, 1876.

Brassey, A., A Voyage in the 'Sunbeam' Our Home for 11 Months, London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1879.

Brown, R.M., The Ceramics of South-East Asia, Their Dating and Identification, Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1977.

Brownrigg, H., 'Betel Paraphernalia in Sri Lanka', Orientations, 16,6, June 1985, pp. 45-53.

Brus, R., 'The Royal Regalia of Thailand', Arts of Asia, Sept-Oct 1985, pp. 92-99.

Buddle, A., 'Cutting Betel in Style', Arts of Asia. July-Aug, 1976, pp 34-39.

Buddle, A., Cutting Betel in Style, exhibition catalogue, London, Victoria & Albert Museum, 1979.

Buhler, J., Nepal, Lausanne, Recontre, 1964,

Burkill, I.H., A Dictionary of the -Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 2 vols, London, Crown Agents for the Colonies, 1935.

Burton-Bradley, B.C., 'Papua and New Guinea Transcultural Psychiatry: Some Implications of Betel Chewing', Medical Journal of Australia, vol 2, 15 October 1966, pp. 744-746.

Buschan, G., Illustrierte Volkerkunde, Stuttgart, 1923.


Cameron, J., Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India. Being a Descriptive Account of Singapore, Penang, Province Wellesley, Malacca, Their Peoples, Products, Commerce and Government, London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1865.

Campbell, Rev. W. British India, London, 1839.

Caron, F. and Jaost Schouten, A True Description of the Miahty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam, reprinted from the English edition of 1613 with Introduction Notes and Appendixes by C.R. Boxer, London, The Argonaut Press, 1935.

Cave, H.W., Golden Tips, London, 1905.

Chandler, D., A History of Cambodia, Boulder, Colorado, Western Press, 1983.

Chao (Ju-kua), Chau Ju-Kua: His work of the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, trans. F.Hirth & W.W. Rockhill, St. Petersburg: Printing office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1911.

Charpentier, C.J., 'The Uses of Betel in Ceylon', Anthropos, 72, 1977, pp. 107-118.

Chater, W.J., Sarawak Long Ago, Kuching, Borneo Literature Bureau, 1969.

Chatlerjee, B.R., Indian Cultural Influence in Cambodia, Calcutta, 1928.

Chaudluai, K.N., The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Co. 1660-1760., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1978 .

Chiang Hai Ding,  A History of Straits Settlements Foreign Trade 1870-1915, Singapore, National Museum, 1978.

Childress, V.R., The Khmer of Ban Phluang, Thailand, A Field Research Monograph, Tulsa, Ok, Soday Research Foundation, n.d.

Chin, L, Cultural Heritage of Sarawak, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, Sarawak Museum, 2nd prnt, 1980.

Chinnery, E.W.P., 'Piper methysticum in Betel Chewing', MAN, 22, 1922, pp. 24-27.

Chinese Celadons and Other Related Wares in Southeast Asia, Singapore, Southeast Asian Ceramic Society, June 1979.

Chit, Khin Myo, 'Betel Lore', Sawaddi, March-April 1979, pp. 12-14.

Choisy, Abbe F.T. de, Journal du voyage de Siam fait en 1685 & 1686,  Paris, Ducharte et Van Buggenhovatt, 1930.

Choo, A.A., Silver, A Guide to the Collections National Museum Singapore, Singapore, National Museum, 1984.

Chou Ta-Kuan (Zhou Daguan), The Customs of Cambodia, trans, by Paul Pelliot, Bangkok, The Siam Society, J. Oilman d'Arcy Paul, 1987.

Chung, W.C. & Ko, B.C., 'Treatment of Taenia saginata infection with mixture of areca nuts and pumpkin seeds', Chinese Journal of Microbiology, 9, 1976, pp. 31-35.

Clifford, H., Life in the Malay Peninsula, London, 1899.

Clifford, Sir H., Malayan Monochromes, London, John Murray, 1913.

Clutterbuck, Rev. G.W., In India, London, 1897.

The Colony of S'pore, Annual Report. 1953.

Coedes, G., Recueil des inscriptions du Siam, Bangkok, publie aux frais du prince, Svasti Vattanovidishta, 1924-1929.

Collet, O.J.A., Terres et Peuples de Sumatra, Amsterdam, 1925.

Collingwood, C., Rambles of a Naturalist on the Shores and Waters of the China Sea, London, J. Murray, 1868.

Collis, M., The Land of the Great Image. Being Experiences of Friar Manrique in Arakan, London, Faber & Faber, 1953.

Collister, P., Mission to Bhutan.

Comber, L., Chinese Ancestor Worship in Malaya. Singapore, Donald Moore, 1957.

Commerce in the Indian Archipelago, London, 1848.

Conklin, H.C., 'Betel Chewing Among the Hanunoo', Quezon City, Diliman, published by the National council of the Philippines, University of the Philippines, 1958, (Special reprint. Full text...of paper no 56. Proceedings of the Fourth Far-Eastern pehistory congress, originally presented as abstract no 66)

Conklin, N., 'The Beauty of Betel Boxes'. Sawaddi, Sept-Oct, 1988, pp. 8-14.

Conklin, N., 'The Faithful Companion of Everyday Life', Sawaddi, July-Aug 1988, pp. 22-29.

Cook, Rev. J.A., Sunny Singapore, An Account of the Place and Its People, with a Sketch of the Results of Missionary Word, London, Elliot Stock, 1907.

Coomaraswamy, A.K., The Arts and Crafts of India and Ceylon, London, 1913.

Coomaraswamy, A.K., Les Arts et les metiers de 1'Inde et de Ceylan, Bruxelles, Vromant, 1924.

Coomaraswamy, A.K., Medieval Sinhalese Art, Gloucestershire, Essex house press, 1907-1908.

Coomaraswamy, A.K., 'Sinhalese Earthenware', Spilia Zevlanica, 19,11, 1906-07.

Coon, C.S., The Story of Man, From the First Human to Primitive Culture and Beyond, 3rd ed rev, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1969.

Cordiner, J.A., A Description of Ceylon, London, 1807.

Corner, E.J.H., The Natural History of Palms, London and Los Angeles, 1966.

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. 4 vols, London, 1888-1995, (vol 3, p. 46 ff)

Court, Major M.H., An Exposition of the Relations of the British Government with the Sultan and State of Palemban and the Designs of the Netherlands Government Upon That Country; with Descriptive Accounts and Maps of Palembancr and the Island of Banca, London, Black, Kingsbury, Parbury and Allen, 1821.

Crawfurd, J.,F.R.S., History of the Indian Archipelago. Containing an account of the manners, arts, languages, religions, institutions and commerce of its inhabitants,  3 vols., Edinburgh, Printed for Archibald Constable and Co. and Hurst, Robinson, and Co. Cheapside, London, 1820.

Crawfurd, J., Journal of an Embassy to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China, London, 1828.

Crevost, C., 'Matieres a mastiquer', Bulletin economique Indochine, 37, 1934, pp. 722-729.

Crooke, W., Religion and Folklore of Northern India, Oxford University Press, 1926.

Crossette, B., 'Everything You Need for a Good Chew', New York Times.

'Culture Du Betel (Piper Betle de Linne) (Cay Dau- Khong Des Annamites) Dans La Province De Thanh-Hoa (Annam)', Hanoi-Haiphong: Imprimerie D'Extrême-Orient, No 90 NS, Mai-Juin 1911, pp. 383-391.

Curzon, George N., ‘Journeys in French Indo-China (Tongking, Annam, Cochin China, Cambodia), pt 2, The Geographical Journal, no 3, vol II, pp. 193-218.


Damrikun, Saraphon, 'Om Koi: Archaeological Site of the Lanna Period', Muang Boran Journal, vol 11, no 3, July-Sept 1985, p. 15.

Davidson, G.F., Trade and Travel in the Far East, London, 1846.

Davis, R., The Rise of the English Shipping Industry, London, Macmillan, 1962.

Davy, J., An Account of the interior of Ceylon, London, 1821.

De Silva, A.C.M., 'The Bulat Hurula and its Functions in Sinhala Social Life', Spoila Zeylanica, 28, 2, 1958.

De Silva, R.K., Early Prints of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1800-1900, London, 1985.

Dey, J.C., 'The East India company's trade in areca 1600 to 1661, at the seizure of Mir Jumla's ship', Indian Culture, vol 9, nos 2/3, October 1942-March 1943, pp. 159-173.

Dickson, M.G., Sarawak and its people, Kuching, Borneo Literature Bureau, 1962.

Dickson, T.E., 'Ceremonial Lime Spatulae from British New Guinea', MAN, 43,15, 1943.

Djajadiningrat, R.A. Husein, Atiehsch - Nederlandsch Woordenboek, deel I, II, Batavia, Landsdrukkerij, 1934.

Dobrenchuk, A., 'Silvercraft in Northern Thailand', Sawaddi, Jan-Feb 1965, pp. 31- 33.

Dogra, H., 'Sireh: A Leaf of all Seasons', Wings, March 1981, pp. 6-10.

Dundees, A. The Study of Folklore, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1965.

Dunham, L.J. & K.M. Herrold, 'Failure to produce tremors in the hamster cheek pouch by exposure to ingredients of betel quid', Journal of the National cancer Institute, 29, 1962, pp. 1047-1067.

Dube, S.C., Indian Village, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1955.


Eaton P., Sarawak the land and its people, Kuching, Borneo Literature Bureau, 1974.

Eberhard, W., Chinese Festivals, 1958.

Eggar, A., The Hatanee: A Story of Anglo-Burmese Life and Burmese Folk-lore and Superstition, London, 1906.

Endicott, K.M., An Analysis of Malay Magic, Singapore, Oxford University Press, 1970.

Enriguez, Major C.M., Malaya, An Account of Its People, Flora and Fauna, London, Hunst & Blackett, 1927.

Enthoven, Tribes and Castes of Bombay, repr, vol 3, Delhi, 1975. (p. 39)

Evans, I.H.N., Studies in Religion. Folk-Lore, and Custom in British North Borneo and the Malay Peninsula, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1923.



Farago, C. & Chester, J.C., 'Cancer in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea', Medical Journal of Australia. 48, II, No. 27, 1961, pp. 1033-1035.

Fessier, L.W., 'Maranao Art and the Aga Khan Museum', Arts of Asia, Sept-Oct 1977, pp. 31-37.

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Firth, R., We, the Tikopia, London, George Allen and Unwin, 1936.

Firth, R., Housekeeping Among Malay Peasants, 2nd ed, London, University of London, 1966.

Forbes, C.J.F.S., British Burma and its people, London, J. Murray, 1878.

Forbes, C.J.F.S., Eleven Years in Ceylon, 2 vols, London, 1840.

Foreman, J., The Philippine Islands, A Political. Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, Embracing the whole period of Spanish Rule with an Account of the Succeeding American Insular Government, Shanghai, Kelly and Walsh, 1906.

Forty, Lt.Col. C.H., Bangkok, London. 1929.

Fox, R.B., The Tabon Caves; archaeological explorations and excavations on Palawan Island,  Philippines,  Manila, Monograph of the National Museum, no 1, 1970.

Francis, C.R., Sketches of Native Life in India, London, 1848.

Fraser-Lu, S., Burmese Lacquerwork, Bangkok, The Tamarind Press, 1985.

Fraser-Lu, S., ‘Burmese Silverware', Arts of Asia,  Mar-Apr, 1980, pp.77-83.

Frazer, J.G., The Golden Bough: A Study in magic and religion, 2nd ed., London and New York, Macmillan, 1900.

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Hill, A.F., Economic Botany; A Textbook of Useful Plants and Plant Products, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952.

Hla Pe, Burmese Poetry (1300-1971), Journal of Burmese Research Society, 54, pp. 59-114.

Hoernle, A.F., Studies in the Medicine of Ancient India, pt 1, Oxford University Press, 1907.

Hornaday, W., Two Years in the Jungle, New York, C. Scribner, 1885.

Hose, C. & William McDougall, The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, vol 1, London, Macmillan, 1912.

Hsia Liang/Lin, 'Betelnut as a Useful Taeniafuge', Chinese Medical Journal 50, 1937.

Hurgronjel Dr. C. Snouck, The Achenese. vol. I, II, trans, by A.W.S. O'Sullivan, 1906, Batavia, Landsdrukkerij, 1893, 1894.

Hurgronjel Dr. C. Souck, Het Gavoland en Ziine Bewoners, Batavia, Landsdrukkerij, 1903.

Hussein, Muhammad, Adat Atieh, Banda Aceh, Dinas Pendidikan dan Kebudayaaaii Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Aceh, 1970.

Hutchinson, E.W., Adventures In Siam in the 18th Century, reprinted Bangkok, D.D. Books, 1985.

Hutton, J.H., Caste in India; Its Nature, Function, and Origins, 3rd ed., Bombay, Oxford University Press, 1961.

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Islam and the Trade of Asia, London, 1970.

The Inscription of Ramkamhaeng the Great, Ed. by Chulalongkorn University on the 700th Anniversary of the Thai Alphabet. n.d.


Jacobs, Julius, Het Familie en Kamponaleven op Groot Atieh, Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1922.

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